Saturday, August 17, 2019

System Integrity and Validation

Preface Kudler Fine Foods located in San Diego, California is a specialty food store that is continuing to grow. Due to the company’s growth, it is necessary for Kudler to make a better use of technology for all aspects of the business. Currently Kudler process a large amount of data through computer programs which is used between all three locations, but with upcoming expansions, Kudler needs the ability to track all of that information and also be confident that the information is reliable. With that being said, Kudler would benefit greatly from Computer Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAATs).It is recommended that Kudler use CAATs, because it will assist with streamlining the IT audit process. CAATs are techniques that â€Å"are used to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the audit function† (Hunton, Bryant, & Bagranoff, 2004, pg. 178). Not only will CAATs assist with making Kudler’s audits go more smoothly, but it will also assist auditors with obtaini ng more reliable, relevant, sufficient, and useful information. There are 10 key steps of CAATs that can be implemented that will assist Kudler in creating a framework for their audits. CAATs are divided into two techniques that will be beneficial to Kudler.The first is validating application integrity. The purpose of this technique is to find whether the source code has been compromised. Verifying the overall integrity of the applications is the second CAATs technique. This technique’s objective is to ensure that the data was imported correctly and also to find any irregularities within the data. Due to the fact that the business continues to grow, the use of CAATs will only assist Kudler in its growth. If Kudler goes with the recommendation to incorporate CAATs, it will assist in streamlining the auditing process. System Integrity and Validation Recommendations were made to Kudler to implement CAATs into the auditing process. This implementation will be beneficial to the co mpany as far as validating and verifying information. The use of audit productivity software would allow an organization to streamline and automate processes. Organizations can take it a step further and use audit productivity software to assist with the design of computer software. The following brief will discuss CAATs and audit productivity software. Computer Assisted Auditing TechniquesComputer Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAATs) can be used to both validate application integrity and to verify data integrity. Data validation determines whether the source code has been compromised. The applications can be validated through test data, parallel simulation, or integrated test facilities. Test data is simply fabricated data entered into the system by the auditor to test the integrity of the system. For example, the auditor may process a payable through the system by creating a vendor and entering an amount to see the process of actually cutting a check from the system.An integrated test facility (ITF) can test applications as they are used on a daily basis. â€Å"The ITF approach integrates the auditor’s contrived test data through the client’s system along with the normal transaction processing† (Hunton, Bryant, & Bagranoff, 2004, pg. 189). During the ITF process, auditors must ensure that the client’s data is not corrupted. All information entered into the system by the auditor should be reversed. Verifying data integrity is ensuring that the data was imported properly and without any irregularities.There are a number of audit tools that can be used to assist with verify integrity such as extracting data, importing it into ACL, and stratifying. Detecting fraud is important when verifying integrity. Audit Productivity Software Functions Audit productivity software provides computerized audit solutions and allows companies to manage and keep track of audit reports. Audit productivity software has a number of functions such as measur ing productivity, resource optimization, data management, and automation. Measuring productivity is simply appraising the performance of the organizations audit reporting.By using audit productivity software, auditors and clients are able to get the best use of all of their resources. For example, each staff member’s time will be used adequately. The auditors’ time will be focused on testing the information in the system, instead of spending hours of time sorting through information deciding what to test. The clients can spend their time completing auditor requests. Data management allows auditors and clients to keep track of all of the information entered into the system by the auditors as well as original information entered by clients.Audit productivity software also allows for automation of the auditing process. Information in multiple systems can be integrated with audit productivity software. Automation can streamline the auditing process for any organization, an d as mentioned previously, it can increase productivity of not only the auditor but for the client as well. Using Audit Productivity Software for System Design Using the audit productivity software can be beneficial when designing systems for an organization.Audit productivity software can assist with minimizing discrepancies between the company software and the actual audit software. The use of audit productivity software provides functionality to the audit process. That same software could be used to help with the design of an organization’s software systems. Software such as electronic working papers, groupware, and time and billing software can all be implemented when designing software systems. If groupware is implemented these systems would have the ability to not only share files, but schedules and calendars as well.Time and billing software is implemented, auditors can better track time spent within that system according to their unique login. Implementation of electr onic working papers assists with everything from daily journal entries to financial statements. Using this software to create a framework for the design of new software would only ensure that audits went smoothly. The audit process can go with little to no incidence, if organizations and auditors would use computerized audit techniques, and audit productivity software.Both the CAATs and the productivity software assist with creating a more automated process. As audit automation increases the time and energy put into the actual audit decreases. Organizations as well as auditors can be more confident that the audit material is reliable and efficient. ? References Apollo Group, Inc. (2011). Kudler Fine Foods. Retrieved from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Business/Kudler2/internet/index. asp Bagranoff, N. A. , Simkin, M. G. , & Strand Norman, C. (2008). Core concepts of accounting information systems (10th ed). New York: Wiley & Sons.

Friday, August 16, 2019

How Should Waste Be Disposed Of Environmental Sciences Essay

This research is to larn and open our head about the waste in our environment and how to cut down or dispose the waste right. This is of import because our Earth is acquiring covered with a waste. The article below show the cogent evidence. The UK produces more than 434 million metric tons of waste every twelvemonth. Every twelvemonth UK families throw off the equivalent of 3 ? million bus coachs ( about 30 million metric tons ) , a waiting line of which would stretch from London to Sydney ( Australia ) and back. On norm, each individual in the UK, throws off seven times their organic structure weight ( about 500kg ) in trash every twelvemonth. ? I would strongly believe the Earth would truly appreciate and thankful to hold homos who know how to cut down or dispose the waste with a right manner. Introduction The dumping of waste at suited sites around the state is the usual agencies of disposal worldwide. It may be the quickest and the cheapest manner to acquire rid of waste but it is non a solution to the job of waste disposal. Indeed, at times is has led to major catastrophes. Landfill is an operation where the waste is used to make full up digging or natural hollow in the land. A shit may be good served but non ever. In the UK, possibly 90 % of all waste including toxic and other unsafe waste is still disposed of by landfill. ? So we need to halt shit the waste and make a proper manner to dispose all the waste. This is to forestall the land H2O pollution. As a consequences, we need to recycle all the wastes. Recycling is a processing used stuffs into new merchandises in order to forestall waste of potentially utile stuffs, cut down the ingestion of fresh natural stuffs, cut down energy use, cut down air pollution, H2O pollution and lower nursery gas. The commence waste that we can recycle are fictile, steel, gum elastic, glass, wood, paper and so on. Different waste difference type and method of recycle. Plastic Plastic is one of the most material waste around the universe. Plastic is light weight and versatile, doing it an ideal stuff for many applications. When we recycle the plastic, we will cut down the volume of waste traveling into the landfill, reduces the sum of oil used for fictile production and reduces the sum of energy consumed. We need to recycle plastic because plastic can take up to 500 old ages to break up. One metric ton of plastics is tantamount to 20,000 two litre drinks bottles or 120,000 bearer bags.? Presents, the demand and used of plastic are acquiring addition. Most of them are seeking to alter the used of other stuff to plastic. For illustration, autos are progressively utilizing fictile constituents in an attempt to cut down vehicle weight and better fuel ingestion. Then, nutrient is being repackaged in plastic instead than glass or Sn in order to cut down weight and merchandise harm. Chameleon. Internet ( 2004 ) Waste Online, Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // Walter, J.K. and Wint, A. ( 1981 ) , Industrial Effluent Treatment, UK, Allied Science Publishers.. The considerable growing in plastic usage is due to the good belongingss of plastics. These include: Extreme versatility and ability to be tailored to run into really specific proficient demands. Lighter weight than viing stuffs, cut downing fuel ingestion during transit. Extreme lastingness. Resistance to chemicals, H2O and impact. Good safety and hygiene belongingss for nutrient packaging. Excellent thermal and electrical insularity belongingss. Relatively cheap to bring forth. However, the are a batch type of plastics such as Polyethylene Terephthalate, High Density Polyethylene, Polyvinyl Chloride, Low Density Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene and many more. Different plastic have different strength, stamina, denseness, runing point, life clip and utilizations. Some can be make for nutrient container and some ca n't because incorporate chemical and toxic. Some can be make for utilizing in high force per unit area and high temperature. The following tabular array illustrates the most common types of plastics used, their applications and the symbol which is frequently used to place them on signifiers of plastic packaging. Polymer Types Examples of applications Symbol Polyethylene Terephthalate Fizzy drink, H2O bottles, salad trays, medical specialty containers High Density Polyethylene Milk bottles, bleach, cleaners and most shampoo bottles. Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes, adjustments, window and door frames ( stiff PVC ) , thermic insularity ( PVC froth ) and automotive parts. Low Density Polyethylene Carrier bags, bin line drives, boxing movies. Polypropylene Margarine bath, microwaveable repast trays, besides produced as fibers and fibrils for rugs, wall coverings Polystyrene Yoghurt pots, foam beefburger boxes and egg cartons, fictile cutter, protective packaging for electronic goods and playthings. Insulating stuff in the edifice and building industry. Unallocated Mentions Any other plastics that do non fall into any of the above classs – for illustration polycarbonate which is frequently used in glazing for the aircraft industry Table 1. Type of plastic, application and symbol ? Plastic recycling procedure There are three cardinal factors when believing about how to recycle – The 3 R ‘s: Figure 1. 4 Recycling is an first-class manner of salvaging energy and conserving the environment because 1 recycled fictile bottle can salvage adequate energy to power a 60-watt visible radiation bulb for 3 hours. 4 To make the recycle procedure, there are a few stairss such as shredding, dividing, runing and remanufacturing. These are the common measure to make the recycle procedure but different type of plastic required different measure of remanufacturing. Shreding Figure 2. 4 Shreding is a cutting procedure. We will set all the fictile waste into a shredding machine and the machine will tear up the waste until it ‘s become little pieces or grain. WRAP ( 2008 ) Plastic type, Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // 4 FUBRA LIMITED ( 2003-2008 ) Recycle at place, Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // Separating Figure 3. 4 There are 3 phases of dividing. Blowing, drifting and centrifution. Once we finish tear uping all the waste, we will make a blowing procedure. This procedure is to take all the unwanted igniter stuffs such as paper labels and mulcts. Before the grains go into a floating procedure, it must travel into a scrubber machine. During this procedure, the grain will be washed with a particular detergent. This is to take the nutrient that might stay on the inside surface of bottles or containers, gum that is used at the label ‘s containers and any soil that might be present. After that, it will travel into drifting container. In this container, the grain will be drain with H2O. Then we will see that all the heavier grain like Polyethylene Terephthalate ( PET ) will be sink while the lighter grain like Polypropylene ( PP ) and High Density Polyethylene ( HDPE ) will be drifting at the top. So, we have separated the different type of plastic. The last measure of separating is a centrifution. This measure is similar with a blowing procedure. Melting Figure 4. 4 Once we done separated the fictile base on their group, we have to run it. Different group require different thaw point. For illustration, the thaw point for HDPE is 130-135 & A ; deg ; C while the thaw point for LDPE is around 110-115 & A ; deg ; C. After that, it will travel into a chilling procedure and will be cut to go a little flake. This flake is called ‘pallet ‘ . Pallet is a fictile natural stuff and this procedure is called ‘repelletizing ‘ . 4 FUBRA LIMITED ( 2003-2008 ) Recycle at place, Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // Remanufacturing Figure 5. Injecting mould 4 Figure 6. Calendaring 4 This is a last measure before the wastes become a new merchandise. Once once more, there are many type of remanufacturing such as injection mold, blow mold, calendaring, extruder, thermoforming and many more. Most of the plastic merchandises are made by injection molding. Example of the merchandises are fork, spoon, home base, bowl, toys, disc casing and many more. Blow mold is merely for green goods bottles and the calendaring is for doing a fictile sheet. Extruder is a procedure to do a long tubing or hosiery. Future development Plastic being used widely for our day-to-day needs – plastic bag, nutrient container, bottle, packaging, etc. Therefore, a batch of plastic is required and there should be new coevals, development and uninterrupted research to counterbalance with today ‘s life style. Invention is really indispensable to procure a strong hereafter for the interest of environmental protection and the sustainability of merchandises based from plastic. Therefore, technology company will be given to plan more sophisticated machine which can recycle the plastic with assortment of advantages in footings of quality of merchandise, cost of production and clip consuming. Beside that, we besides have to believe about a new merchandise made by plastic in order to replace other merchandise which have been made by other stuff such as steel. For illustration, auto organic structure. Currently, about 95 % of the auto organic structure in the universe utilizing steel and merely 5 % is utilizing C fiber. This is because, the cost to bring forth the C fiber is so high. As a consequence, we need to make a research to better the plastic capableness. Once we archive the hereafter program, we will be able to increase the demand of plastic. Stating that point, authorities may be can do an offer to purchase a fictile waste from people. As a consequences, people are seeking to maintain their fictile waste and sell it. In the other manus, we are non merely can cut down the waste but we manage to bring forth some gross. Decision Recycling is the best solution for waste direction and to derive sustainability stuff. It is non easy to develop new engineerings and methods for recycle. Therefore, allow us made usage of it sagely and pull off this waste decently even though the utilizations of plastic is acquiring higher. 4 FUBRA LIMITED ( 2003-2008 ) Recycle at place, Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Research on Honey Pots with regard to proofing security

Battling hackers and technological experts who use their knowledge for stealing information and hacking can always be troublesome and costly. Why waste time, effort, energy and risk losing out thousands of dollars in profits. The use of honey pots and honey tokens can eliminate the need for such risks and enhance the security of the system. Honey tokens and honey pots are not computer systems. In fact, they are software that is designed to interact with unauthorized users and counter their activity. They give you the ability to allow hackers and crackers into the system and make them feel as if they have broken into the system. They hold false data that is kept there for that malicious user to use and steal. The honey pot then actively saves all the actions performed by the unauthorized user. Using such honey pots and combining it with the data on their actions, many potential takeovers can be subdued. Several malicious invasions can be countered using such honey pots, and at the same time, the illegal user commending on his capabilities on managing to break into the company’s security. A honey pot works by trapping the actions of an intruder by setting a fallacious database that has honey pots are just software that tackles crackers intelligently without them knowing that they have been tracked. The cracker can do whatever they like with data that is as fallacious as dummy data. There is no sensitive data provided to such a cracker and the hacker’s actions will be under review all the while he is snooping around in the system. They are relatively easy to install and do not require a lot of high technological cost or monitoring. But they are highly effective in countering illegal break-ins to sensitive data. As soon as there is an access to the system through any undefined way, the honey pot gets activated and provides the user with databases that is of no use to the company and is actually in place to fool the hacker. Therefore, Mr. Lloyd, given the obvious benefits of sugar coating an illegal user and then finding the security holes that they used in breaching the system, the company should consider implementing the honey pot system. Using this we can then fix our security holes so that they can stop other crackers breaching our security again. Bibliography 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What is honey pot? a definition from Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Search Security Web site:,,sid14_gci551721,00.html 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Dynamic Honeypots Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Security Focus Web site:

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Pttls Unit 1

1. Summarise key aspects of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating to own role and responsibilities The key legal and regulatory requirements relating to my role as a teacher are:- †¢ Children Act (2004) – Every child matters †¢ Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) †¢ Data Protection Act (1998 amended 2003) †¢ Equality Act (2010) †¢ Freedom of Information Act (2000) †¢ Health & Safety at Work Act (1974) †¢ Human Rights Act (1998) Protection of Children Act (1999) †¢ Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) There will be Codes of Practice, either generic or specific, that will need to be followed such as the Code of Professional Practice (2008) introduced by the Institute for Learning. 2. Explain own responsibilities for promoting equality and valuing diversity It is important that students are able to attend, and participate in their choice of course or learning event, for it to be accessible on equal ter ms.To support this ideal, I must adhere to the equal opportunity legislation in place, which ensures that learners are not discriminated against in terms of age, gender, sexual orientation, disability, race, pregnancy or maternity, religious or other belief, marriage, civil partnership or gender reassignment. Whilst this is an ideal situation we are not able to treat everyone exactly the same. It is important to understand the needs of learners so that we can give them the best experience in the learning environment.If I have a student who uses a wheelchair, then I must ensure that access to the learning venue is suitable and that any portable ramps etc are available. Where I have students that are from diverse cultural backgrounds I should encourage an environment where differing opinions are respected and prejudice or stereotyping are challenged. Where further support is required by a learner, it should be offered 3. Explain own role and responsibilities in lifelong learning First ly, I need to identify the needs of the organisation, individuals and me personally.I will ensure that any forms are easy to complete and cater for different languages or print size and are available in hard copy or electronically. I will need to make an initial assessment of the needs of learners and agree learning plans. I need to prepare a scheme of work to include session plans, learning materials to meet the needs of the syllabus and liaise with other interested parties. I will need to facilitate learning using a variety of approaches including formulating ground rules, record keeping, incorporating different teaching and learning materials and even knowing who and where the nominated first aider is.I will need to assess the learning, ensuring that the awarding body rules are met. I must ensure that relevant documentation is completed and kept safe and confidential. I will need to check the students lerning outcomes have been met and that they have gained the necessary skills a nd knowledge. I need to evaluate my teaching experience by obtaining feedback from others. I can obtain this from the student, awarding body and organisation I am working for.I will also evaluate my own work in order to make improvements to my teaching ability and the learning experience. 4. Explain own role and responsibilities in identifying and meeting the needs of the learners I can identify the learners needs at the application stage, by interview, questionnaire, or at a student 1to1 session, or at the beginning of the session or programme. I must give clear guidance on the process and information to ensure the course meats their personal learning needs. Once I have the information this will help me with my planning.I need to ascertain the required learning support (help with ITC, numeracy, literacy), or student support (help with personal issues, general guidance or advice), and again use the information in my planning and course execution. 2. 1Explain the boundaries between t he teaching role and other professional roles It is important to understand where my role as a teacher ends and where I need to involve other professionals. These might include Heads of Dept, H&S officers, technicians, support workers or admin staff. Within the ACO I may need to refer to parents/guardians Wing, Region or Head Quarters specialists.I, for instance as a teacher am not qualified to repair a broken plug socket so I would refer to an electrician, similarly I am not a social worker therefore any issues that are of a personal nature (to the student)I would pass over to the relevant specialist rather than trying to deal with it myself, potentially causing more harm. 2. 2Describe points of referral to meet the needs of learners It is possible that I will encounter students with a variety of degrees of needs so I need to remain impartial and sensitive to individual situations. I will not be able to deal with every situation that arises.I must be aware of where I can refer stud ents for help both within and externally to the organisation. Below is a table containing example points of referral. |INTERNAL |EXTERNAL | |accommodation officers |awarding organisations | |careers advisers |banks or building societies | |colleagues carers | |Counsellors |charities | |examination officers |childcare agencies | |financial services staff |Citizens Advice Bureau | |first-aiders |employers | |health and welfare officers |health centre. , slimming clubs, general | |information , advice and guidance staff |practitioners, hospitals | |interpreters |Job Centre Plus | |learning support staff |motoring and transport organisations | |mentors |police | |student support staff |telephone help-lines and agencies such as abuse, alcohol, bereavement support, | |student union representatives |Childline, Crimestoppers, debt, drug, lesbian and gay switchboard, gambling, | |teachers |NHS Direct , parentline, Samaritans, victim support | | |websites which are relevant | Table from ‘Preparing to Teach in the Life Long Learning Sector’ by Ann Gravells – Pg 53 2. 3Summarise own responsibilities in relation to other professionals My main responsibility is to my students, however I need to be aware of the impact my actions will have on other groups or individuals. I will need to be conscious of how I work with other managers on site as well as my peers, with awarding bodies including internal and external verifiers & Ofsted inspectors and other external agencies. Within the Air Cadet Organisation (ACO). I will also have responsibilities with regard to parents/ guardians and other members of the ACO. I must remain professional and not exceed my role boundaries 3. Explain own responsibilities in maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment It is imperative that the environment is safe. The room or area for teaching must be large enough to support the activities being undertaken and the number of people involved. A risk assessment s hould be carried out to highlight and eliminate (so far is practicable) any potential dangers. Consideration must be given to lighting, heating, ventilation and toilet facilities to ensure the comfort of learners and teaching staff. I must inform the group regarding procedures for housekeeping, and emergency evacuation. 3. 2Explain ways to promote appropriate behavior and respect othersI would establish with the group some ground rules both for the learners and myself to promote the appropriate safety, behaviour and respect of everyone. It is important that these rules are negotiated and agreed with the group. These rules can be reviewed and changed as the course progresses as needed. For the group – what they should expect from each other, things like courtesy, respecting others views etc. For myself – What the learners can expect from me. Some rules may be imposed – health and safety, no smoking, no anti-social behavior. Some more negotiable – standard of dress, break timings, turning off mobile phones. Reference Book Preparing to Teach in the Life Long Learning Sector’ by Ann Gravells

The Impact of Mass Media on the Opinion of General Public Case Study

The Impact of Mass Media on the Opinion of General Public - Case Study Example In disseminating the information we should understand that in any elections the people to be elected are expected to possess the following qualities:- Since we have reduced the requirement of the people, about a candidate, to two basic things mentioned above, these things should take most of our concentration/coverage in our newspaper. We should start by focusing on the quality issues1 which had been constantly coming up in the letters written to us. Most likely these issues will be the focus of the campaigners too. Therefore, we should focus on the issues which each candidate is addressing and how he plans to address them, to the maximum. This should take the maximum of our effort. The above approach will take us directly to certain issues which are important in the light of the feelings communicated through letters to us but are not being addressed. We have to point that out for the benefit of both the parties i.e. for campaigners and for voters. For campaigners in a sense that our pointing out the issues will help the campaigners to re-orientate themselves (if at all they want to) and start preparing to address the more urgent issues, resultantly it will be the voter who will benefit.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Geophysical Modelling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Geophysical Modelling - Essay Example Firstly, we may declare the thermal conductivity of the soil layers as constant value (2nd assumption). Indeed, if heat transfer is plane and steady, and if is not large (in our case ), one can make a reasonably accurate approximation using a constant average value of (Lienhard &Lienhard 2003, p. 51). Then, we may declare the density and the specific heat of the soil layers as constants and (3rd assumption). It is necessary to note that such assumption is somewhat groundless, especially for the cases of strictly inhomogeneous soils. However, only after this we may introduce a constant diffusion coefficient () of the soil (Bird et al. 2002, p. 268). Finally, we may declare that the rate of internal energy conversion is negligibly small (4th assumption). In fact, such assumption is declaration of absence of the heat generation or consumption within the soil. Again we note that this assumption can be groundless for the inhomogeneous soils with stone inclusions, fluid- or air-filled interstices with internal convective flows. Moreover, the heat transfer in such porous and composite media is very difficult to analyze (Bird et al. 2002, p. 281-283). for the steady boundary conditions and ; is the thickness of the soil upon the rock background. Solution (5) is easy to derive analytically (Haberman 1983, p. 13-14), so we will use it for checking our numerical model by approximation at . Heat transfer model parameters The simplified problem (4) is stated by following values: m, m2s-1. Boundary conditions are: , (1st case), and (2nd case). Initial values are stated by equation . Model discretization is stated by number of soil layers , their thicknesses m, and the timestep (in seconds) which we can modify (240s, or 550s). Model geometry is shown at the figure 1. In our model zero-level () is located at the surface of the rock background because the soil thickness is rather unstable parameter. Indeed, thickness of the real soil cover is a function and for the small areas only. Therefore, we will use more "stable" rock surface to count out -values of the soil layers. Model dynamics (i.e. heat conduction process) is described by (4) which is transformed in a form of difference equation ; (6) here, denotes ; , ; , . The work equation (6) is derived from (4) by FTCS scheme, when forward differentiation was used for and centered differentiation was used for (Boyce & DiPrima 2001, p. 419f). Figure 1 - Model geometry Solutions 1. Let us transform the FTCS scheme (6) into an explicit form: . (7) For the bottom soil layer () we have (8) because of . For the layer near the soil surface () we have (9) because of . 2. To create a Matlab script for solving equation (4) in the explicit FTCS form (7), we can use both initial script and examples of (Mathews & Fink 1999, p. 526-536). Work model code is in

Monday, August 12, 2019

Democratic Practices in Botswana Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Democratic Practices in Botswana - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that democracy is, perhaps, one of the most elaborate of political theories and encompasses within its scope separate academic disciplines, namely philosophy, law, economics, political science, and sociology. The history of human civilization has witnessed yield of several political ideologies or â€Å"-isms†, each of which actually aimed at the welfare of common people but none of those have been so successful as that of democracy, which has represented the voice of commoners with an immense strength. The saga of democratic politics, according to the historical references, started with the ancient Greek civilization, â€Å"In the fifth century BC, Athens emerged as the most innovative and sophisticated ‘city-state’ or polis among many rival Greek communities†. Aftermath, in different ages, different human civilizations experimented with the democratic system of governance. On numerous occasions, statesmen and lea ders have clearly denounced the option to deliver democratic power to citizens and attempted to prohibit the rise of common people to power. However, none of these attempts prevailed and democratic system of governance has found its way through spontaneous urge of common people. The widest and most pervasive application of democracy started since the late 19th and inception of the 20th century. Prior to that time, the world witnessed evils of imperialism and colonialism.